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Sumer, the Constellations and Draco the Dragon

Why is any of this relevant??? - part 1,
'Kick-off' 2001

Why is any of this relevant? - part 2,
The heritage of the ruling elite - 5000 Years Old???

Ancestral Roots of the Vikings

The Huns

The Huns: Addendum

The Tribe of Dan

The Franks


Melissena: Addendum


Melissena was the granddaughter of a Holy Emperor of Byzantium, Michael I Rangabe.

In the centuries following the fall of the Roman Empire the Merovingians ruled Gaul completely independent of Papal authority, but this changed with the Carolingians.  For a period beginning with Charlemagne, the Kings of the Frankish kingdom also held the title of Holy Roman Emperor, but required papal sanction before being crowned.  When Charlemagne became emperor though, he didn't get his papal seal of approval from Rome - he got it from Michael I Rangabe, the Eastern Holy Emperor of Byzantium.

Michael Rangabe's anscestry is unclear, but a cursory look into the genealogy of the royal Byzantines in general shows them to have been a mix of royal Khazars and Armenians, some Bulgars (the Bulgar Khans descended from Hunnic kings), with a royal Bagratid appearing here and there.  (The Bagratids are addressed in a post I am working on, 'Georgia and Ex-Caliber'.)

The anscestry of Melissena's grandmother, Michael Rangabe's wife Procopia on the other hand, is known.   She was the descendant of royal Khazars, Bulgars and Huns.

This is quite interesting and worth mentioning.  On the chart at the right one can see Bulgar Khans and Hunnic kings in the history of Procopia's great-grandfather  Constantine V.  Constantine's wife was Irene, Princess of the Khazars.  Irene's Khazar Kagan anscestors in turn can be traced all the way back to the Han Dynasty of China - not through the Xiongnu as is the case with the Huns, but rather through Ch'ang-lo, a Xi-Wei Princess and mother of one of the first Khazar Kagans (!).

Constantine's father, Emperor Leo III, also inherited royal Khazar blood from his mother Fabia Proba, whose mother in turn is thought to have been Theodora of the Khazars.   This is pretty likely, for Constantine V's son Leo (not shown) is known as Leo IV "the Khazar". 

When Melissena married Inger the Scandinavian, the Khazar and Viking branches of the dragon were (re-)united.   This union was apparently so significant to the elite of medieval Europe that it was commemorated in myth - the story of Melusine. 

In the myth, Melusine is a beautiful sorceress.  She meets a French noble in the forests of France (he is alternately Raymond de Poitou, Raymond de Vere, or a Count of Lusignan) and wins his heart.  They marry, however she insists that he can never enter her chamber on a Saturday.  In truth, Melusine is half serpent, her lower half actually being twin serpent or fish-like tails which are revealed on the Sabbath.  Eventually her husband finds out her secret.  Melusine is heartbroken, transforms herself into a dragon and flies away. 

If you like Starbucks Coffee, you have seen her often. The mermaid of the Starbucks logo is Melusine.   She also shows up on the crests of a couple of towns in Bavaria, such as Isen and Zusamaltheim.


current logo

previous logo

coat of arms
coat of arms

The myth of Melusine has "dragon" written all over it and I suspect that her split douple-tail represents the joining of the Khazar/Hun and Viking/Frank branches.  Some of the important family houses which were infused with blood from Melissena include (to varying degrees of certainty) Hohen, Babenburg, Wittelsbach, Wettin, Brusse (which later became the Bruce clan of Scotland), Arpad and the Varangian Rus rulers of the Ukraine.

I have prepared a simple (and by no means comprehensive) genealogy chart below which shows some of the familial relationships I'm about to talk about.  I hope the reader can follow me here, this can get confusing - but it is very interesting and important in grasping how the various branches of the dragon intermingled to shape the aristocracy of medieval Europe and the British Isles. 

I recommend opening the genealogy chart below in a new window so as to follow along more easily.    melissena_genealogy.html

The story begins in the 10th and 11th cenuries and revolves around two royal families, the Varangian Rus rulers of Kiev (Ukraine), specifically Vladimir I and his children, and the Arpad family who ruled Hungary.

The Arpads are descended from Attila the Hun, and they led the Magyar tribes of Khazaria.  These Magyars along with another Khazarian tribe, the Kabars, migrated into eastern Europe in the 10th century settling in Hungary, where the Arpad family became the ruling dynasty.

The Varangian Rus were essentially Vikings from Skaneland (southern Sweden) who migrated southeast into Russia during the 9th and 10th centuries, conquering and ruling the Ukraine and other parts of Russia for many generations.  Vladimir is one of the best known 'Grand Princes of Kiev', and had many wives.  One of them was a descendant of Melissena, Anna Porphyrogenita Princess of Byzantium (Melissena's great x3 grandaughter).  Melissena and Vladimir can be found in the middle of the genealogy chart I have prepared near the top.

Vladimir was very prolific (to say the least), siring around 20 children legitimately through a half-dozen wives, not to mention illegitimate children, which must have been many for Vladimir reportedly kept hundreds of concubines around his kingdom.   One of his sons was Yaroslav "the Wise", who most sources list as the son of Vladimir's Polotsk wife Rogneda.  However, I don't buy it.  I believe, and will continue on the assumtion that, Yaroslav was the son of Vladimir by his Byzantine wife, Anna Porphyrogenita.   (See at the bottom of the page for arguments in favor of Anna being Yaroslav's mother.)

After Vladimir's death and just around the time that Yaroslav was consolidating his power in Kiev, England fell under the Danish rule of Canute.  The Saxon hier to the English throne, Edward "the Exile", fled to Kiev where he lived under Yaroslav's protection. 

In Hungary in the early 11th century there was a stretch of eight years when two kings, one a Kabar and one an Italian with an Arpad mother named Peter Orseolo "the Venetian", controlled the Hungarian throne.  During this short period Andrew, the Arpad hier to the throne, lived in exile in Kiev with two of his brothers (along with Edward the Exile). 

Peter the Venetian proved very unpopular with the nobles of Hungary (most of whom had lost their positions to make way for Peter's Italian friends), and the nobles started an uprising.  Peter was thrown out, Arpad rule was restored, and Andrew returned to Budapest and ascended the throne.  Edward the Exile also moved to Hungary with his family, probably at the same time. 

Edward and his wife Agatha had a daughter following their move to Hungary, Margaret, who would later become the Queen of Scotland.  More about this world-changing event in a moment.

There was a riot of royal blood-mixing between important Khazar, Hun, Viking, Frank and Saxon blood-lines which followed these events, coinciding with the rise in importance of various ruling houses of Germania.  Many of these houses can be traced back to Melissena through the Rus rulers of Kiev and the Arpad leaders of Hungary.   Additionally, this same blood found its way into the veins of the subsequent rulers of Scotland and England.

For starters, Yaroslav's sister, Arlogia Vladimirovna of Russia, who was also I believe a daughter of Anna Porphyrogenita (see arguments at the bottom of the page) married Rognvald Brusse, the Earl of Orkney.  Two generations later their grandson Robert II Le Brusse married Agnes St. Clair, adding the blood of Rollo the Viking's line into the mix.  The Brusses would later rule Scotland under the name Bruce and, after Marjorie Bruce, the daughter of Robert I the Bruce (the confidant of William Wallace and a central figure in the movie 'Braveheart') married Walter Stewart, the combined Bruce/Stewart rule of Scotland proceded under the Stewart family name.   (Middle of the chart.) 

Vladimir I's son Yaroslav the Wise had 3 daughters.  One he married off to Harald III of Norway, another to Henry the king of France, and a third, Anastasia, married Andrew I King of Hungary.

While Vladimir's son Yaroslav was marrying his daughters to royals of Europe, Danish rule in England came to an end and Edward the Exile and his family returned to England with a few Hungarian royals in tow.   Edward was immediately killed (undoubtedly by a competitor for the throne).  Nine years later Duke William of Normandy conquered England and Margaret and her entourage fled to Scotland, where Margaret married king Malcom III.  They had a daughter, Matilda, who married King Henry I of England (son of William the Conqueror), as well as a son, David I, who inherited the Scottish throne. 

Hunnic/Magyar blood flowed generously into the royal houses of Europe from the Arpads, and often was mixed with the Byzantine/Khazar blood of Melissena which the Arpads received from their Rus cousins.  The Germanic houses of Hohenstaufen, Brunswick, Babenburg, Wittelsbach, Wettin and Hapsburg all intertwine with the Arpads through three Hungarian princesses, Elizabeth, Sophia and Ilona.  Elizabeth Arpad married Frederick Przemyslide of Bohemia whose mother was a Babenburg.   They had a daughter, Ludmilla, who married Ludwig I Wittelsbach of Bavaria. Ludwig I was in turn the descendent of Sophia Arpad, Princess of Hungary, through his ancestor Otto IV Wittelsbach, as well as being descended from Melissena through Frederick I Duke of Swabia (the grandfather of Frederick I "Barbarossa", the first Holy Roman Emperor of Germania).  Ludmilla and Ludwig's son Otto II married Agnes Welf of Saxony, another link which traces back to Frederick "Barbarossa" (and by extension Melissena), to Henry "the Lion" who started the house of Brunswick, and to Henry's wife Matilda who was the granddaughter of Malcom and Margaret, King and Queen of Scotland. 

Hey, if you think it's tough following along, imagine trying to sort it out in the first place ... the intermarrying between these families was nothing less than incestuous!!!

Anyway, Otto II Wittelsbach's marriage to Agnes Welf of Saxony  effectively merged the combined Arpad/Wittelsbach bloodlines with those of Margaret and the houses of Brunswick and Hohenstaufen.

Meanwhile, yet another Hungarian princess Ilona married Leopold V of Austria, combining the Arpad line with that of Babenberg (far right on the chart).   Along the way this bloodline merged with that of Wettin, and finally Frederick II de Wettin married Matilde von Wittelsbach effectivedly merging all of these branches together (and there are undoubtedly other routes by which all these lines mix and merge - again, the intermarrying was incestuous).   One big happy (when they weren't fighting...), family. 

The Arpads connect to Vladislov's ruling house of Kiev through one other marriage, Yaraslov's son Vsevolod I (who became Grand Prince) to Anastasia of Byzantium (she was known by other names as well, such as Maria von Byzanz, or, get this, Irina Maria Theodora Monomakh (!?!)).  Anastasia was the daughter of Constantine IX and was a Byzantine princess.  Anastasia and Vsevolod's granddaughter Euphrosyne later married Geza II, tying the royal Kievan Rus to the Arpads by this additional thread, and their children included Ilona and Elizabeth Arpad, who married into German royal houses as detailed above. 

It would have been beyond my wildest expectations were it to turn out that this Byzantine princess Anastasia was somehow connected to Melissena, and I was almost sure it wouldn't be so, for I have poured over the available genealogies of all of Melissena's close descendants and I knew pretty much what names are in there.   Then I discovered something, the possiblity of which had never occured to me ... Melissena had a sister (!).   Sure enough, Anastasia of Byzantium was descended from Melissena's sister, Procopius, whose genealogy I will offer in an addendum to this post.

A few words about George, one of three sons of Andrew I King of Hungary.  Most sources fail to even mention him for some reason - go look up Andrew I of Hungary on Wikipedia, his children are listed as Adelaide, Solomon and David.  No George.  In fact, good luck finding much about George anywhere.  Why?  Could it be because George was unimportant?   Quite the contrary!

George accompanied Margaret to Scotland and begat the Drummond clan.  (Nearly all sources show George's son Maurice being the patriarch of the Drummonds, but George did indeed travel to Scotland with Margaret, in fact Maurice would have been only a small boy when Margaret and her entourage arrived in Scotland.)  The Drummonds married later into the Scottish royal family (James I of Scotland was the son of Robert III the Bruce and Annabella Drummond - see chart) while becoming a prominant banking family in Britain. 

Since Andrew I Arpad's wife Anastasia (I'm speaking of Yaroslav's sister, not Vsevolov's wife) was the granddaughter of Anna Porphyrogenita of Byzantium, their son George inherited the blood of Melissena through her ... and since the Varangian Rus were essentially Vikings and since the Arpads were Huns, George carried a full compliment of royal Viking, Hun and Khazar dragon-blood.  Keep that in mind and contemplate this ... roughly around the period when George and Margaret showed up in the British Isles, the flags of England and Scotland were established.  (I do mean roughly, the Scottish flag wasn't established until the following century.)   A red cross on white was chosen for the flag of England while a white saltire cross on blue became the flag of Scotland, the two of which would eventually be combined into the "Union Jack" of Great Britain.  The flags of England and Scotland are known respectively as - the Cross of St. George and the Cross of St. Andrew.

Cross of St. Andrew
Cross of St. George
original Union Jack
Get it?


Officially, the Cross of St. George is named for St. George the dragon slayer while the Cross of St. Andrew is named for St. Andrew, the disciple of John the Baptist and Jesus.  However King Andrew of Hungary and his son George were also undoubtedly named for these two saints, and the timing of the appearance of the flags is conspicuous.  No one can say for sure, but if the flags of England and Scotland were actually named in honor of the Arpads George and Andrew, it is maybe the best kept secret of all time.

I honestly can't remember, but credit for this discovery should probably be accredited to "John", the somewhat anonomous author of a book entitled 'Tracking Ladon Gog and the Hebrew Rose', who is a verifiable genius IMO with regard to untangling the (dragon) roots of the elite.   Another of John's discoveries, which I will close this post with, is absolutely mind-blowing.  I hope you stick with me long enough to enjoy it.  (Obviously, it won't be as enjoyable if you cheat!)

Another big marriage in the history of Europe's elite was that between Theophanu of Byzantium, another close descendant of Melissena, to Otto II of Saxony, a Holy Roman Emperor.   Otto II was the son of Otto "the Great" and the grandson of Henry "the Fowler", who connect back to the Saxon kings of England and the Carolingian Franks.  Their descendant, Hildegarde of Swabia married Frederick III von Buren, and their grandson Frederick II in turn married Judith Welf of Bavaria.  (Judith was the granddaughter of Sophia Arpad and her nephew Henry "the Lion" started the House of Brunswick.)

Frederick "Barbarossa" von Hohenstaufen was their son and a Holy Emperor and, this is what I find really interesting, Frederick's son Heinrick VI married Constance de Hauteville, who was the daughter of a Templar, Roger II of Sicily (!).   Roger II is allegedly the namesake of the "Jolly Roger", the skull and crossbones flag which became the well recognised symbol of piracy, and Roger's father, Roger I Guiscard, is central to the mythical origins of the skull and crossbones symbol and its significance to the Templar Knights.   (This is explained in 'Uroko' - with great relish. :)

Roger in turn was, believe it or not, a direct descendant of Rollo the Viking (!) through Fredesende of Normandy,  the daughter of Richard I "the Fearless" (left side of chart).   And, if you look toward the center-right of my chart, you will see that Bela III, King of Hungary and brother to Elizabeth and Ilona Arpad, married Ann de Chatillon-sur-Loing.  Ann de Chatillon-sur-Loing was a close descendant of Robert I Guiscard of Hauteville, Fredesende of Normandy's son and an uncle of Roger I. 

Absolutely incestuous.

OK, enough genealogy.  There is something interesting about the ruling houses which inherited Khazar blood from Melissena - the coats of arms of a conspicuous number of them are blue and white.  Check out the crest of Wittelsbach for example, or the flag of Bavaria, both similar and both blue and white.  The crest of the house of Lusignan is blue and white and, while I haven't been able to tie the Lusignans to Melissena directly, they are implicated in the myth of Melusine.  The crest of the German branch of the Drummond clan features blue and white wavy bars, and the crest of the Leslie clan, another Scottish noble family whose patriarch is yet another royal Hungarian who accompanied Margaret to Scotland (Bartholemew Ladislav) is blue and white as well.  The most startling of all these is the crest of the Vlad family, which I assume connect to Vladimir I of Kiev (for various reasons), the implications of which are significant enough that I intend to devote a whole post to it.  (When you see it you'll understand why.)

So were blue and white the school colors of the Hungarian Arpads?  The Kievan Rus?    - Nope.   It turns out that this color theme apparently derives from Melissena's grandfather.

Coat of Arms of
Michael I Rangabe

St. Margaret's Chapel,
The coat of arms of Michael I Rangabe features a white cross on a blue background with small Greek letters placed in the four quandrants separated by the cross.  A near duplicate of his crest shows up in a peculiar place ... in St. Margaret's Chapel in Edinburgh, where there is a stained glass image of Margaret, Queen of Scotland.  Above her head is the same white cross on a blue background with small white birds arranged in the 4 quadrants (a minor variation from Michael Rangabe's crest).

This clue, if you ask me, goes a long way toward answering one of the mysteries of medieval genealogy - who was Queen Margaret's mother?

Margaret's mother is known only as Agatha - various theories identifying her as German, Polish, Bulgar, Hungarian or Rus have been proposed.  Since Margaret's father was a Saxon of the English royal family and there's no way she could have inherited the blue and white cross shown above her head in the Edinburgh chapel from him, she had to get it from her mother.  I propose that Agatha, mother of St. Margaret Queen of Scotland, had Khazar blood in her veins.   Since the cross in St. Margaret's church and the cross of Michael I Rangabe are almost identical (right down to the fleur-de-lis tips of the cross), one is tempted to assume that Michael I Rangabe lied somewhere in the ancestry of Margaret's mother.  

I should note that the precious Khazar blood which Melissena passed on to the Brusses, the Hohenstaufens, the Varangian Rus and other lines did not necessarily come from her grandfather, Michael Rangabe.  It could have come from her grandmother Procopia, for she would have shared her husband's crest.  Indeed, as I showed above, Procopia descended from a long line of Khazar Kagans (kings).

There's one other place where this blue/white theme shows up which shouldn't be overlooked - the coat of arms of Cohen, which features blue and white checks.   This to me is pretty good confirmation that what made Melissena's line significant were her royal Khazar ancestors, simply because the name Cohen is in fact an alteration of Kagan.  'Kagan' in Khazaria meant 'King'.

German Cohen family crest
Hohen family crest
Stewart family crest
I mention in 'Uroko' that the royal houses of Stewart and Hohen are offshoots of the house of Cohen, as evidenced by their coats of arms.  The Stewart crest features the same blue and white checks as does the Cohen crest, pointing to Khazar Kagans somewhere in their family history.   Stewart was not originally the family name actually, it was a hereditary title, the High "Steward" of Scotland, which was first awarded to a Walter FitzAlan of Brittany.

Walter FitzAlan came to England to support Margaret's granddaughter Matilda's claim to the English throne during 'The Anarchy', a period of civil war in England caused by a dispute of succession between Matilda and her cousin Stephen.  (Matilda was married to Henry "the Lion" of the House of Brunswick as I have mentioned.)  Matilda lost out to Stephen, but her son Henry was named Stephen's successor (as per the Treaty of Wallingford), and Walter FitzAlan, for his efforts, was named the first High Steward of Scotland by King David I, Margaret's son. 

Hooold on there a minute, king David!??  David, a Hebrew name, would have been a very unusual choice for the son of an 11th century Scottish king ... but not necessarily so for the son of a Scottish queen with Khazarian roots, further evidence that Margaret had some Khazar blood in her.  AND, this dovetails perfectly with the implications of the blue and white Cohen checks of the Stewart crest, for if the families of both David I and Walter FitzAlan shared common roots in Khazaria, it could explain why Walter fought for Matilda's cause and why David invented the office of High Steward to thank him.

(Note: Andrew I of Hungary also named one of his sons David, and there is a plausible theory, explained at the bottom of the page, that would make Andrew the nephew of Agatha, Margaret's mother.)

... On to the Hohens.  There were several branches of the house of Hohen, the Hohenbergs, the Hohenzollerns, and the very important Hohenstaufens, three of whom were crowned Holy Roman Emperor.  The Hohen coat of arms features red checks instead of blue, but is otherwise identical to the Cohen crest and the names Hohen and Cohen are a near match.

But for the longest time I was at a loss as to specifically how the house of Hohen (or for that matter Stewart - a puzzle I fear I will never crack) got its "Cohen" checks.  Nothing in the genealogy trees I looked over gave any indication of a connection ... or so I thought.  Finally it hit me - Melissena was the link.  Frederick "Barbarossa" got his Khazar blood from his great-grandmother Hildegarde of Swabia, who was a direct descendant of Melissena.

But, Melissena wasn't a Jewish Cohen, was she?  I mean, for heaven's sake her grandfather was a Holy Emperor of the Christian Church of Byzantium, right???  

She was descended from Kazarian KAGAN's, and through her so was Frederick Barbarossa, a "Holy Roman Emperor".  There's the rub!!!!  Kagan = Cohen!  Forget about religious affiliation.   With regard to the ruling elite,  don't think "Jewish" when you read the name Cohen ... think Kagan, "King".

As promised, I saved a little treat for last, a discovery by "John", author of 'Ladon Gog'.

John has stumbled on to the (very plausible) notion that a handful of important royal houses of medieval Germania (most of which have already been introduced in this post) are represented in the characters of a well-loved Hanna-Barbera TV cartoon ... the Flintstones (!!!).

The clues lie in the similarity of names, correllations between the colors of the characters' outfits and the coats of arms of the respective houses, and alliances.  Fred mirrors the house of Hohen (Frederick I and Frederick II being two Hohenstauffen emperors), Wilma that of Flanders, while Barney represents the house of Brunswick.  Betty mirrors the house of Wettin (and maybe the house of Wittelsbach as well, which was closely related to that of Wettin and the family crest of which is blue and white like Betty's outfit), Bam-Bam represents the house of Babenburg, while Pebbles is probably the house of Babel and/or Baden.   Also note that Fred and Barney are masons - members of the Water-buffalo lodge.

So somebody in-the-know in Southern California before the 1960 debut of the Flintstones, not unlike the myth-writers of ancient Greece, thought it might be fun to immortalize the Germanic houses in which Melissena's Khazar blood mixed with that of the Franks, Huns and Vikings in a cartoon.

Who'd a thunk?


Notes on the maternal parentage of Yaroslav "the Wise":

Vladimir married Rogneda around 980 - the story of their marriage is quite shocking.   Vladimir heard that Rogneda was betrothed to his half-brother, Yaropolk I, and decided he wanted her for himself.  So he invaded Polotsk, raped Rogneda in front of her parents, killed her family and took her home with him. 

In 988 Vladimir took his next wife, Anna Porphyrogenita, a Byzantine princess.  Upon his marriage to Anna, Vladimir converted to Christianity and divorced his other wives, probably a condition of the union, and had the entire population of Kiev baptised in the Dneiper river.

Nestor the Chronicler placed Yaroslav's birth at 978, a full 10 years before Vladimir's marriage to Anna, a date which has is widely accepted.  However, Nestor was biased against Greek influence in Kiev and some have argued that Nestor purposely omitted any information from his Chronicles which reflected Kievan-Byzantine ties.  This included misrepresenting the year of Yaroslav's birth to fit with him being a son of Rogneda.  Nestor slips up though, referring at one point to Yaroslav as being 28 when he ruled Novgorod,  This would have been at the year 1016, placing Yaroslav's birth in 988.   Furthermore, Yaroslav's bones were tested and dated, and the results were that Yaroslav was born sometime between 988 and 990, in agreement with the later date and which would have been after Vladimir's divorce from Rogneda and marriage to Anna. 

The names of Yaroslav's children also point to Anna Porphyrogeneta having been his mother.  While Yaroslav's sons all took Slavic names including his eldest son Vladimir named for Yaroslav's father, his daughters all bear Greek names, one of them Anna, which would make perfect sense if Yaroslav's mother were in fact Anna Porphyrogenita. 

Daughters of Yaroslav:


Sons of Yaroslav:



The most persuasive hypothesis for Agatha's identity I have read has her as being a daughter of Vladimir and full-sister of Dobronega, by Vladimir's last wife Ragneda of Ohningen.  Ragneda Ohningen was the niece of Holy Roman Emperor Otto II of Saxony, satisfying the condition whereby Agatha is noted as having been related to the Emperor ("filia germani imperatoris Henrici").  Another clue to Agatha's identity comes in the form of Geoffrey Gaimar's statement in Lestoire des Engles that Agatha was a daughter of the king and queen ("Li reis sa fille") and places her marriage to Edward at a time when he is still thought to have been in Kiev, while William of Malmesbury states in De Gestis Regis Anglorum that Agatha's sister was a Queen of Hungary ("reginae sororem").  There are other clues which contradict these, but some of the confusion may have arisen because Vladimir died only a few years after marrying Ragneda.  Had Agatha been Vladimir's daughter by Ragdena it is likely that she would have been raised in the household of Vladimir's son, Yaroslav.  One of Yaroslav's daughters was Anastasia who indeed became king Andrew of Hungary's wife and queen, and if Agatha were mistaken for a daughter of Yaroslav rather than his Aunt, this could explain the "reginae sororem" entry as well as some of the confusion surrounding Agatha's parentage.

Fresco of Yaroslav's daughters in St. Sophia's Cathedral in Kiev
In the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev there is a fresco of the daughters of Yaroslav - but four girls appear in the fresco ... Yaroslav had only three daughters, Elizabeth, Anastasia and Anna.  Could the mystery girl be Agatha, mother of Margaret?

The proposed genealogy above wouldn't result in Khazar blood from Melissena flowing into Margaret, for Ragneda of Ohningen doesn't connect directly to any of Melissena's descendants, nor does Vladimir.  However Vladimir's son Yaroslav does connect to Melissena though his mother Anna Porphyrogenita, as does Ragneda of Ohningen's uncle Otto II of Saxony through his wife Theophanu.  Close - and maybe close enough to explain the Rangabe white cross on blue shown above Margaret's head in her chapel in Edinburgh. 



Arlogia, the wife of Rognvald Brusse Earl of Orkney and one of Vladimir's many daughters, also appears to have been a child of Anna.  Some sources claim that Arlogia, like Yaroslav, was a daughter of Vladimir's Polotsk wife Rogdena, but this is clearly erroneous, as Arlogia was born a full 20 years after Vladimir divorced Rogdena.  Two sources I like both list Arlogia as Anna's daughter. 


(The 'Anna Lekapene' listed as Arlogia's mother in the second link is in fact Anna Porphyrogenita.  Porphyrogenita just meant "born in purple", i.e. of royal birth.)

It is known that Vladimir, who died in 1015, survived Anna by four years, so this would mean Anna died around the year 1011, also the year often cited as that of Arlogia's birth.  Could it be that Anna died giving birth to Arlogia???  I'm no expert on this stuff, but it seems like a real possibility to me. 

I find it interesting that the names Rogdena, (Vladimir's wife prior to Anna Porphyrogenita) and Ragneda (Vladimir's last wife) are similar.  Some sources have Arlogia (rather than Agatha) being a daughter of Ragneda, Vladimir's last wife.  Could this be a source of confusion pertaining to the parentage of Arlogia, leading some sources to claim that she was the daughter of Vladimir's earlier wife Rogdena? 

This is all very muddled and frustrating - but I tend to go with Arlogia being a daughter of Anna Porphyrogenita - not just because two genealogy sites I trust agree on the point, but also because the Brusse family into which she married rose to such dominance in Scotland and, interestingly, adopted a blue and white crest. 


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